Transparency International, defines corruption as the misuse of public power for private benefit. Transparency International, a nongovernmental organization based in Germany, its most recent Report ” Corruption Perceptions Index” also states that the failure to significantly control corruption is fueling a global crisis in democracy. While governments across the globe are involved in monetary corruption of state funds, this becomes particularly problematic in the 3rd world countries, where poverty is quite widespread. Corrupt leaders of countries tend to spend state funds to their own advantage, depriving their poverty-stricken people of much-needed capital.
As their countries struggle to survive on extremely low incomes, this money is typically spent on building business empires or personal wealth for these leaders.
According to the most recent Transparency International rankings, Sub-Saharan Africa was the lowest-scoring region on the index, with an average score of 32 out of 100, falling short of the global average of 43.
5. Libya: CPI – 17 | Rank 173/180
Libya has been in a state of absolute chaos since the fall of Gaddafi’s dictatorship in 2010. The economy has plummeted, and the public and private sectors have descended into a limbo of corruption. Corruption and vandalism have totally destroyed the once-thriving oil industry.
Corruption is a significant barrier for companies doing business in Libya. All sectors of the Libyan economy are affected by widespread corruption, but the public procurement sector and the oil industry are badly affected. Bribery and favoritism are common in all industries, and businesses may face unfair competition from state-owned enterprises, which also dominate the local market.
Corruption was rampant during Gaddafi’s reign, and it has only gotten worse in the post-revolution period. The institutional framework for combating corruption is weak, and political instability and violence undermine the rule of law. The Libyan Constitution Drafting Assembly is still working on the constitution, so all laws are based on the Constitutional Declaration that came into effect after Gaddafi’s ouster. Even so, the judiciary and security apparatus are ineffective, making law enforcement extremely weak.
4. Sudan CPI- 16 | Rank 174/180
Sudan has one of the most difficult business environments in the world. Sectors with a high concentration of foreign investment, such as construction and transportation, are widely regarded as highly corrupt. Corruption exists at all levels of the Sudanese government and in all sectors of the economy. It manifests itself as financial and political corruption, nepotism, and abuse of power. Petty corruption, according to the Sudan Democracy First Group, is widespread among citizens seeking government services.
Corruption is common among Sudanese government officials, who routinely act with complete impunity, knowing that any transgression will almost certainly not be investigated. According to sources, corruption opportunities are created by inefficient administration and bureaucracy, as well as poor record-keeping and a lack of transparency. Government employees frequently demand bribes.
According to reports, the Sudanese police force surpasses all other government agencies in the public’s perception of corrupt agencies. Furthermore, law-enforcement officers are subject to political interference, and hiring for the police force is frequently explained by political connections rather than professional qualifications.
Sudan was placed 174th out of 180 nations in Transparency International’s 2020 Corruption Perceptions Index.
3. Equatorial Guinea CPI- 16 | Rank 174/180
Political corruption in Equatorial Guinea is high by global standards, ranking among the worst of any country on the planet.
Few countries more exemplify oil-fueled corruption and nepotism than Equatorial Guinea,” Jan Mouawad wrote in The New York Times in July 2009. According to the Open Society Foundations (OSF), its corruption system is “unparalleled in its brazenness”. This government is controlled by a limited group of powerful individuals who divert most of the country’s revenues into their own clandestine bank accounts in other nations.
Due to vast oil reserves, the country is enormously wealthy, but that wealth is concentrated in the hands of a small elite group. Despite having a GDP per capita of $18,236 – making it richer than most African countries. Equatorial Guinea is ranked 145th out of 189 countries in the Human Development Index, which measures quality of life. While Equatorial Guinea has a per capita GDP similar to China, the vast majority of its people live in poverty worse than Afghanistan one of the poorest country in the world.
The majority of people in Equatorial Guinea continue to live in Extreme poverty, with no access to healthcare or education.
The country is consistently near the bottom of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perception Index due to high levels of corruption. Only seven countries were lower in 2009. Since 2008, it has been the only country in the world to receive a ‘zero’ for budget transparency. According to a US State Department report from 2008, officials in Equatorial Guinea frequently engage in corruption and illegal practices with impunity. The country received a score of zero on TI’s Open Budget Index in 2014. From 1996 to 2013, the Economic Intelligence Unit assigned the country a score of 0 for “corruption control.”
2. South Sudan CPI -12 | Rank 179|180
South Sudan has some of the worst corruption in the world. The country’s elites have created a kleptocratic system that controls every aspect of the South Sudanese economy.
The enforcer or man in charge always loots public funds in broad daylight. According to the Auditor General’s report for 2005 and 2006, the level of corruption and mismanagement was so high that Some members of South Sudan’s National Legislative Assembly were moved to tears. According to a 2012 report, more than $4 billion in government funds have been stolen since the establishment of self-rule in 2005.
President Salva Kiir Mayardit fired Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Elias Wako Nyamellel in 2013 for admitting that South Sudan is corrupt and “rotten to the core.” The problem is exacerbated by a severe lack of transparency in South Sudanese government records and business information.
State spending, which includes a procurement system prone to corruption and waste, with lucrative contracts regularly awarded to suppliers with ties to government officials. Corruption and mismanagement have crippled nearly every public institution. No-bid contracts, particularly for road construction and vehicle imports, are routinely awarded to companies owned by ruling elites at exorbitant prices with no oversight.
South Sudanese government spending is characterized by a “widespread disregard” for reporting, regulation, and documentation. Setting up a company entails dealing with a complex bureaucracy, and it is believed that this complex system has allowed officials to profit significantly through bribes and the acquisition of undocumented shares in firms.
1. Somalia CPI -12 | Rank 179|180
Somalia tops the list of Africa’s most corrupt countries. The country’s high corruption rate is aided even more by the country’s unrest, state of chaos, and insecurity. Bribery is also prevalent, as certain government officials allow themselves to be bribed and so turn a blind eye when illegal and unlawful acts are committed.
Dysfunctional institutions contribute to a lawless atmosphere, and the lack of any kind of regulatory framework obstructs economic competitiveness. Patronage networks drive business, and strong monopolies rule the market. The Provisional Constitution of Somalia makes various types of corruption illegal including abuse of power, embezzlement, and bribery, however enforcement is non-existent.
Within the security establishment, corruption is rampant. Authorities do not have effective control over the police force, and there is widespread impunity. Furthermore, the police force is ineffective. Companies in Somalia are forced to either work with violent groups or arm themselves against threats to keep safe from crimes.
The Somali National Army is the most powerful security force in the country but also the most corrupt, with army chiefs systematically inflating soldier numbers in order to receive more funding.
Somalia’s state institutions were completely destroyed in 1991, and efforts to rebuild the country’s public administrations have been modest since then due to ongoing armed conflict and rampant corruption. In Somalia, there are no legal or institutional frameworks governing the market, so market competition is non-existent, and the economy is dominated by patronage networks with close ties to the ruling elite.